Arabidopsis thaliana isoprenyl diphosphate synthases produce the C25 intermediate geranylfarnesyl di…

  Isoprenyl diphosphate synthases (IDSs) catalyze some of the most basic steps in terpene biosynthesis by producing the prenyl diphosphate precursors of each of the various terpenoid classes. Most plants investigated have distinct enzymes that produce the short-chain all-trans (E) prenyl diphosphates geranyl diphosphate (GDP, C10), farnesyl diphosp…

Diversification of sterol methyltransferase enzymes in plants and a role for β-sitosterol in oriente…

Phytosterols are classified into C24-ethylsterols and C24-methylsterols according to the different C24-alkylation levels conferred by two types of sterol methyltransferases (SMTs). The first type of SMT (SMT1) is widely conserved, whereas the second type (SMT2) has diverged in charophytes and land plants. The Arabidopsissmt2 smt3 mutant is defectiv…

Ethylene production in Botrytis cinerea- and oligogalacturonide-induced immunity requires calcium-de…

  Plant immunity against pathogens is achieved through rapid activation of defense responses that occur upon sensing of microbe- or damage-associated molecular patterns, respectively referred to as MAMPs and DAMPs. Oligogalacturonides (OGs), linear fragments derived from homogalacturonan hydrolysis by pathogen-secreted cell wall-degrading enzymes,…

Centromere and telomere sequence alterations reflect the rapid genome evolution within the carnivoro…

  Linear chromosomes of eukaryotic organisms invariably possess centromeres and telomeres to ensure proper chromosome segregation during nuclear divisions and to protect the chromosome ends from deterioration and fusion, respectively. While centromeric sequences may differ between species, with arrays of tandemly repeated sequences and retrotranspo…