New Natural Sugars-Trehalose

Trehalose is widely available in many edible plants, animals and microorganisms in nature, such as mushrooms, seaweed, beans, shrimp, bread, beer and yeast fermentative food consumed in daily life.
The internationally authoritative "Nature" magazine published a special article on the evaluation of trehalose in July 2000. The article states: "For many living things, the presence or absence of trehalose means life or death."
1.Application in food industry:
Like other sugars, trehalose is widely used in the food industry, including beverages, chocolate and sweets, baked goods and frozen foods.
Functional properties of trehalose and its application in food: (1) prevention of starch aging (2) prevention of protein denaturation (3) inhibition of lipid oxidative deterioration (4) flavoring (5) maintenance of vegetables (6) meat tissue Stable and fresh-keeping effect (7) Long-lasting and stable energy source.
●Baking products
In baked goods, trehalose has a variety of potential USES: it adjusts the sweetness and aroma of cakes, biscuits and pastries, bread and butter and fruit fillings, without damaging storage life and giving people a taste of the original flavor.
At the same time, trehalose helps to reduce the fat in cookies, bread cream and icing, creating a unique icing feeling in savory and fast food. It makes it easier for consumers to accept high-calorie products with high fat and sugar due to good sweet quality. While keeping the product in storage, trehalose reduces the flow of moisture in the oiled baked goods to make it sweeter.
●Candy
Trehalose, mixed with most other sweeteners, can be used in candies, fruit juice drinks and herbal products to adjust the sweetness of the product so that it really retains its original flavor.
Trehalose is used as an outer layer of candy to form a stable non-absorbent protective layer. Due to the stability of properties, trehalose can be carried out at long-term high temperature without worrying about hydrolysis and color change, without negatively affecting product quality.
Seaweed coating is excellent. The unique dissolving properties of trehalose can really allow them to roll over to form a protective layer, which is extremely stable and firm, thus improving the relative white surface of most other sweeteners.
●Energy products
Trehalose is broken down into glucose, but it has a more stable blood sugar response than other sugars. This unique property combines its low carious and non-cathartic effects, making it ideal for drink formulation to provide energy and reduce fatigue and stress.
●Chocolate 
The use of trehalose in chocolate confectionery can adjust the sweetness of the confectionery. It is especially beneficial for the soft candy containing the dairy product and the product containing the fruit filling.. Trehalose can also reduce the moisture in multi-ingredient products.In molded products, an improvement in the product's sweetness opens the possibility of creating new flavors of chocolate.
As a main sweetening agent or combined with other low carious sweetening agents, trehalose can be used in the preparation of dental benefits according to the formula. Trehalose can be combined with polyols to make chocolate. The heat absorbed by the solution minimizes the cooling effect of polyols.
●Fruits
Trehalose is the best sweetener in processed fruits (including jams, flavored jams, and fruit fillings). Adding trehalose to fruit products can maintain the original flavor of the product without harming the storage period.
In addition, due to the stability of the properties of trehalose, hydrolysis will not be produced, the product color and the original luster can be maintained.
Trehalose can be used in condiments and jams to produce flavor by adjusting sweet taste while maintaining product storage life.
●Frozen goods
Trehalose can replace sucrose, reducing the condensation point of ice cream and other frozen products. Can be used in frozen and frozen confectionery to produce new icing, and produce a unique delicious flavor.
●Beverage
Trehalose is slightly sweet in the drink and has good taste. It can be combined with most other sweeteners to make it more sweet and comprehensively improve the product flavor. In alcoholic beverages, trehalose does not impair the sensory properties of alcohol, making it more flavorful.
●Seafood
As a kind of cryoprotectant for seafood, trehalose is particularly effective. When it absolutely inhibits the function degree of water in protein and water interface, it increases the hardness, elasticity and gel strength of seafood. In addition, the slightly sweet nature of trehalose also improves the taste quality of seafood. Unlike other cryoprotectant used to treat seafood, trehalose does not cause a burning sensation in the throat and does not cause diarrhea.
2.Application in pharmaceutical industry
In medicine, trehalose has been successfully used to replace plasma protein as a stabilizer for blood products, vaccines, lymphocytes, cell tissues and other bioactive substances. The world health organization (who) attaches great importance to preventing the spread of deadly diseases such as hepatitis b and AIDS caused by the pollution of blood sources.
Quadrant of Cambridge research foundation, the polio vaccine mixed with trehalose after lyophilization, found its stability when 45 ℃ in dry state without becoming dry and liquid 4 ℃ storage condition. The success of the project will greatly reduce the processing of the vaccine, reduce the cost of storage and transportation of the vaccine, and ensure that the long-distance transport of the vaccine remains highly active, which will greatly help the who to achieve its goal of eliminating polio within the maximum range.
John Crow of the university of California, Berkeley, and his colleagues combined trehalose with cells that make platelets. After drying and dehydrating the cells, they froze and dried them for a long time at room temperature. It has been shown that platelets injected with trehalose and preserved for a long time can survive 85% after hydration, and the survival rate is higher than that of platelets stored in most blood Banks for a short period of time.
Trehalose can be used for the preservation of biological reagents for research, such as various tool enzymes, cell membranes, organelles, antibodies, antigens and viruses, etc., making life science research more convenient and efficient, and detailed research by British University Camilo.C. The protective effect of trehalose on DNA restriction endonuclease DNA ligase and DNA polymerase showed that all enzymes added with trehalose were stored at 70 ° C for 35 days or at 37 ° C for 9 months. Without loss, the DNA can still be cut off accurately. The Institute of Microbiology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences applied three kinds of diagnostic tools for the preparation of human serum cholesterol by trehalose drying. After long-term storage at room temperature, the activity retention rate was above 90%, and it has been successfully used in clinical applications. This is an effect that cannot be achieved by other kinds of protective agents. The use of trehalose as a stabilizer and a protective agent for biological reagents such as a diagnostic tool enzyme can be dried and stored under normal temperature conditions, which not only simplifies the preparation process of biological reagents, but also simplifies the preparation process of biological reagents. It also brings convenience to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the vast rural areas of China.
Bifidobacteria is a kind of bacteria used in the intestinal tract to improve the microecological balance of human body. As a powerful weapon to prevent and cure diseases, bifidobacteria active preparation is popular in Europe, America, Japan and other developed countries. In China, bifidobacteria active preparation has gradually become a new force in the pharmaceutical industry. As bifidobacterium is an anaerobe requiring severe living conditions, the death of the bacterium is easily caused by slight changes in the external environment. Therefore, how to improve the survival rate of bifidobacterium and guarantee the shelf life of the product has always been a technical problem troubling the live bacteria preparation industry. Fat-free milk has been widely used as a freeze-drying protectant since 2012, but the effect is not ideal, and the survival rate of bacteria decreases rapidly during storage. The results of 2012 showed that the survival rate of bifidobacterium longum was more than twice that of skimmed milk using trehalose as the protective agent. It was particularly exciting that trehalose could maintain the activity of freeze-dried bifidobacterium under normal temperature for a long time and greatly extend the shelf life of the living bacteria preparation. Therefore, it can solve the problem of poor storage performance and short shelf life of products in the live bacteria preparation industry.
3.Application in cosmetics
The application of trehalose in cosmetics is based on its excellent ability to maintain cell vitality and biological macromolecular activity. Skin cells, especially epidermal cells under the environment of high temperature, cold, dry and strong ultraviolet radiation, can easily lose water and keratinize, or even die and fall off, resulting in skin damage. In this case, trehalose is able to form a special protective membrane on the surface of the cell, and the mucus from the membrane not only moistens the skin cells, but also radiates out the external heat. Protect the skin from damage. With the understanding of functions and functions of trehalose, trehalose as a new generation of super moisturizing factor will become a hot spot in the cosmetics market. Many manufacturers at home and abroad have successfully added trehalose to cosmetics.