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Ethylene production in Botrytis cinerea- and oligogalacturonide-induced immunity requires calcium-dependent protein kinases

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  Plant immunity against pathogens is achieved through rapid activation of defense responses that occur upon sensing of microbe- or damage-associated molecular patterns, respectively referred to as MAMPs and DAMPs. Oligogalacturonides (OGs), linear fragments derived from homogalacturonan hydrolysis by pathogen-secreted cell wall-degrading enzymes, and flg22, a 22-amino acid peptide derived from the bacterial flagellin, represent prototypical DAMPs and MAMPs, respectively. Both types of molecules induce protection against infections.

      In plants, like in animals, calcium is a second messenger that mediates responses to biotic stresses by activating calcium-binding proteins. Here we show that simultaneous loss of calcium-dependent protein kinases CPK5, CPK6 and CPK11 affects Arabidopsis thaliana basal as well as elicitor- induced resistance to the necrotroph Botrytis cinerea, by affecting pathogen-induced ethylene production and accumulation of the ethylene biosynthetic enzymes 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase 2 (ACS2) and 6 (ACS6). Moreover, ethylene signaling contributes to OG-triggered immunity activation, and lack of CPK5, CPK6 and CPK11 affects the duration of OG- and flg22-induced gene expression, indicating that these kinases are shared elements of both DAMP and MAMP signaling pathways.

Centromere and telomere sequence alterations reflect the rapid genome evolution within the carnivorous plant genus GenliseaDiversification of sterol methyltransferase enzymes in plants and a role for β-sitosterol in oriented cell plate formation and polarized growth